How do I care for my tires?
It will help me save
- Checking tire air pressure, and regular tire maintenance such as rotation, alignment and inspections can help you save money
It can extend the life of your tires so you don’t have to buy as often
Simple things like checking your tires’ pressure to make sure that they are properly inflated can make a real difference in how long your tires last. Under or over-inflated tires don’t wear evenly and won’t last as long. For example, a tire that is consistently 20% under- inflated can last 20% less. That means a tire that should normally last 60,000 miles would be worn out by 48,000 miles. Also, since the front and rear axles and right and left sides of your car wear down your tires differently, rotating your tires regularly between the different positions will ensure they wear evenly and last longer.
It can save you money on fuel
- Under-inflated tires are one of the biggest causes of using excess fuel.
- Under-inflated tires have higher rolling resistance, which means it takes more effort from the engine to move your vehicle.
It ensures your safety
Your tires are the only point of contact that your vehicle has with the road – they need to be in good working condition at all times to ensure your safety.
To avoid any problems, follow these important care tips:
Inspect your tire:
You may not always notice if one of your tires has been damaged. Inspect your tires regularly for wear and any damage to avoid any sudden problems. Also, have a professional inspect your tires every year.
Check the air pressure:
Driving with incorrect tire pressures can affect a vehicle’s handling and braking, particularly in wet conditions, and can seriously compromise your safety. Driving on severely under-inflated tires can cause heat build-up and eventually a premature failure. Check your tire pressure monthly and before every long trip.
Respect the load capacity:
Do not exceed the load capacity relative to the tire’s load index. Tires loaded beyond their maximum loads can build up excessive heat that may result in sudden tire destruction.
Driving at high speed* can damage your tire:
At greater speeds, tires have greater a chance of being damaged by road hazards or heat build-up. High speeds can also contribute to a rapid air loss or even a sudden tire explosion, which can cause the loss of control of the vehicle.
Use your spare tire!
If you see any damage to a tire or wheel, replace it with your spare tire and have your tire checked by a professional.
*Exceeding the safe, legal speed limit is neither recommended nor endorsed.
Air Pressure: what should I know?
- Check the pressure of all your tires monthly, including the spare. Even if you don’t see any damage, tires can lose up to 1 psi - pounds per square inch - every month. This can be accelerated by air leaks due to accidental puncture, leaks in the valve or valve cap, or by wheel malfunction.
- Check your tire pressure before making a long trip.
- For best results, check your tire pressure when tires are cool– before driving the car or if it has covered less than 3 miles at low speed.
- If the tire is hot, add 4-5 psi to the car manufacturer's recommended pressure value (0.3 bar) or wait until it has cooled down, which is an average of three hours after parking the car.
- Never deflate a hot tire.
How do I check my tire pressure?
- Insert the pressure gauge into the valve stem on your tire.
- The gauge will “pop” out and show a number: that's the psi number.
- The hissing sound is air escaping the tire. It shouldn’t affect pressure substantially, unless you hold down the air pressure gauge too long.
- Compare the measured psi to the recommended psi.
- If the psi is above the recommended number, let air out until they match. If it's below, add air until it reaches the proper number.
Where can I find the recommended pressure for my tires?
- In the vehicle owner's manual.
- On a sticker on the driver's door or the gas tank door.
- Do not use the number on your tire’s sidewall, as this does not indicate the pressure needed in your tire.
About pressure gauges
- Be careful if you are using a pressure gauge provided in gas stations. The pressure gauge is often not reliable.
- Buy a high-quality pressure gauge and check its accuracy with a tire professional.
Getting it right is important
- Under-inflated or over-inflated tires can wear down faster than expected, have reduced grip, and can consume more fuel. It just takes a few minutes a month to help ensure your safety and the longevity of your tires.
Nitrogen: what are the benefits?
What is nitrogen?
Nitrogen is simply dry air with the oxygen removed. Air contains nearly 79% nitrogen already.
How is it used?
Nitrogen Versus Compressed Air
Most tires are filled with compressed air. But some tire retailers have started to put nitrogen into their customers’ tires. (Nitrogen is simply dry air with the oxygen removed. Air contains nearly 79% nitrogen already.) Because nitrogen replaces oxygen, less air can escape your tires, and your inflation pressure stays higher longer. Unfortunately, there are other possible sources of leaks (tire/rim interface, valve, valve/rim interface and the wheel) which prevent the guarantee of pressure maintenance for individuals using air or nitrogen inflation.
Nitrogen and compressed air CAN be mixed, if needed. Tires manufactured by Michelin are designed to deliver their expected performance when inflated with air or nitrogen, as long as the user respects the pressures recommended by the vehicle manufacturer on the vehicle’s placard or by the tire manufacturer.
Unfortunately, there are other possible sources of leaks (tire/rim interface, valve, valve/rim interface and the wheel), which means there's no guarantee of maintained pressure with either air or nitrogen.
Note that, even if tires are inflated with nitrogen, the pressure and overall tire condition must still be checked frequently.
Valve: what should I know?
What is the role of the valve?
- It ensures the proper tire pressure is maintained.
- It blocks moisture from entering the tire.
- The valve cap is also important to maintain the pressure (high quality caps are recommended).
- The valve cap also helps to block dust particles from obstructing the valve.
Aging and damages
- Valves are usually made of rubber and therefore age with time.
- They can be damaged by high speeds and air can leak.
When should I change the valves?
Whenever you buy new tires.
How to check if you have enough tread left
In order to effectively grip the road, evacuate water and maintain control, your tires need to have a safe amount of remaining tread. If the grooves in the tire design have almost disappeared, the tire will simply not grip the road as well. This is particularly dangerous in wet or wintry conditions.
- Plus, if you drive with tires under the legal tread limit, you may be fined
- You should check the wear of your tires regularly. If your tires are approaching the legal limit or if you have any doubts, get them checked by a tire professional. Or see below how to check it yourself.
1- Check the tread wear with a tread depth gauge
- Make sure the car is on hand brake and in first gear (for manual gearboxes) or park (for automatics).
- Check the depth of the main tread grooves in several places across and around the tire, using the gauge as instructed by its manufacturer.
- The legal minimum tread depth in the United States is 2/32nd's across the central three-quarters of the tread width and round its entire circumference.
2- Check the tread wear indicators
- Tires have tread wear indicators moulded into the base of the main grooves.
- When the tread surface is worn to the same level as these indicators, the tire is at the legal limit and should be replaced.
- Winter tires: MICHELIN® Winter tires have a ‘snowflake’ design to show the location of additional tread wear indicators. They are 0.15 inch high. Replace your Winter tires once they are worn down to the level of the 'snow' tread wear indicators.
3- Use the penny test
A- Take a penny and hold Abe's body between your thumb and forefinger.
B- Select a point on your tire where tread appears the lowest and place Lincoln's head into one of the grooves.
C- If any part of Abe Lincoln's head is covered by the tread, you're driving with the legal and safe amount of tread. If your tread gets below that (approximately 2/32 of an inch), your car's ability to grip the road in adverse conditions is greatly reduced.
Tire rotation: what should I know?
What is it?
During rotation, each tire and wheel is removed from your vehicle and moved to a different position to ensure that all tires wear evenly and last longer.
When should I do it?
Tires should be rotated based on your vehicle manufacturer's recommendation or every 6,000 to 8,000 miles. Monthly inspection for tire wear is recommended. Your tires should be rotated at first sign of irregular wear, even if it occurs before 6,000 miles. This is true for all vehicles.
Since the position of the tire on your vehicle can affect how it wears down, regular rotation helps ensure that tires wear evenly, extending the life of your tires and improving performance.
Tire alignment: what should I know?
(also known as "Suspension alignment")
Tire alignment is a simple process, which may require slight adjustment of front and/or rear suspension components. If your alignment is off, your vehicle could be unsafe to drive.
When should I have my tire alignment checked?
- You’ve hit a sizable object on the road.
- You see a wear pattern developing on the shoulders (outer edges) of the tires.
- You notice a difference in your vehicle’s handling or when you are steering.
- When you replace suspension or steering components.
- At least every 4,350 miles.
A few example indicators:
- Your vehicle pulls or drifts to one side, when you are travelling on a straight, flat road with little cross-wind.
- Your steering wheel does not return easily after a turn.
- Your steering wheel remains at an angle when driving in a straight line.
Why is important?
- To minimize wear and tear and to maximize driver and passenger comfort.
- To reduce wear on your tires, help increase their life and performance, and improve fuel economy.
- To improve handling and driving safety by reducing steering and stability problems.
How are wheels aligned? The details
There are three main adjustments made during alignment:
- Camber: if you’re viewing from the front of the vehicle, camber is the angle of the wheel, in degrees.
- Caster: if you’re viewing the side of a vehicle, the caster angle identifies the forward or backward slope of a line drawn through the upper and lower steering pivot points.
- Toe: it’s the difference in the distance between the front of the tires and the back of the tires.
Tire balancing: what should I know?
What is it?
- Sometimes when tires are mounted the distribution of weight of the tire+wheel assembly is not perfectly even all around the tire.
- A wheel is out of balance when one area is heavier or lighter than the rest. The result is bouncing or wobbling, which can decrease tread life, increase vibration, and cause stress on your vehicle.
- Tire balancing compensates for the weight differences to make sure that the tire weight is balanced. Tire professionals will add weights where necessary to counterbalance the tires.
When should I balance my tires?
- When a tire is replaced
- When a balance weight is moved or removed
- When you purchase new tires
How are wheels balanced?
- To balance a wheel, your mechanic uses a balancing machine to determine where the heavy spots are.
- Weights are then attached to the exterior or interior of the wheel to counteract centrifugal forces acting on the heavy areas when the wheel is turning.
If you ever feel bouncing, wobbling or vibrations, consult a tire professional quickly.
What are the basics?
- If you switch between sets of tires, proper storage ensures that your tires’ appearance and performance are maintained.
- Tires should always be stored in a cool, dry, clean, indoor environment:
If tires sit outdoors, unused for long periods of time (a month or more), their surfaces will become dry and surface cracks can appear.
Before storing your tires:
- Before removing your tires, note their position on your car. This will allow you to properly rotate your tires next time you mount them to ensure that they wear evenly.
- Inspect each one for damage or uneven wear.
- Clean your wheels and tires with water and dry them well to limit any corrosion.
- Remove any stones or debris that have been trapped in the tire grooves.
Storing your tires:
- Store your tires indoors in a clean, cool and dark location away from direct sunlight, sources of heat and ozone such as hot pipes or electric generators.
- If you are storing outdoors (recommended for a short time only), raise tires off the ground and use waterproof covering with holes to prevent moisture build-up.
- Be sure the surfaces on which tires are stored are clean and free from grease, gasoline, solvents, oils or other substances that could deteriorate the rubber.
- For aesthetic reasons, if your tires have whitewall or raised white lettering, store them with the whitewall or raised white lettering facing each other. Otherwise, black rubber could stain them.
- If tires are on a vehicle parked for a long period, the weight of the vehicle needs to be taken off the tires by jacking it up or removing the tires. Failure to do this may cause irreversible damage.
How to store tires with rims
If you need to store tires that are mounted on rims, hang them up or stack them. Do not store them standing upright.
How to store tires without rims
If the tires are not fitted on rims, do not stack or hang them. Store them standing up.
How do I change a tire?
Notice: Do not attempt to change a tire if it risks the safety of you or your passengers.
Removing the tire:
- Move to the side of the road safely, put on your hazard lights and set your emergency break.
- Find your spare tire and tools (lug wrench and a jack) – usually in the trunk or under the car (but you can check in your owner manual as well).
- Remove the wheel’s hubcap. Don’t remove the lug nuts - just loosen them up.
- See your manual to find the right place to lift the car with the jack.
- Lift the car until the wheel is off the ground.
- Remove the lug nuts and then the tire with both hands.
Mounting the spare:
- Align the holes on the spare with the bolts on the wheel and push the tire in as far as it will go.
- Replace lug nuts and tighten.
- Replace the opposite lug nuts (this ensures they are tightened evenly).
- Lower your car.
- Retighten each lug nut, then its opposite.
A few more tips:
- Carry a pair of sturdy gloves and a garbage bag in your trunk, in case the tire you're removing is covered in mud and a sturdy board to place your jack on in case the ground is soft, to avoid the jack sinking in.
- Check the inflation pressure of the spare tire before mounting. If this is not possible, once mounted, drive carefully at low speed until it can be checked.
- Visit the nearest service station and inflate the tire correctly.
- If you have a mini spare, make sure you stay within its speed and mileage requirements
- Visit your garage to find a replacement tire.
- Where necessary, use light machine oil on the wheel nut threads to help their removal.
- Poorly tightened wheel nuts risk damage the brake discs or wheel mounting system.
- Use a torque wrench to make sure you tighten the nuts correctly with the correct torque.
If you don't have a torque wrench get a tire specialist to check them as soon as possible. This will ensure the correct torque has been applied.
- Correctly tightened wheel nuts will also make it easy to remove them.
What should I do before I leave on a trip?
- Make sure your vehicle is up-to-date on all inspections .
- Check your tires’ air pressure and compare to the information on the tire information sticker in your vehicle’s door, gas tank, or in your owner’s manual. You can also find the right pressure for your tires through our Tire Selector vehicle search.
- Check your tires’ tread wear and condition visually. If your tread seems worn down or the tires seem damaged, have the tires checked by a professional.
Make sure your tires are registered to receive direct notification in the event of a safety-related recall.